Bring a medium pot of salted water to boil. Prepare a bowl of ice water and place nearby.
Remove the fava beans and the peas from their pods and place in separate bowls (discard the pods). Place the fava beans in the boiling water and cook for 5 minutes; remove with a slotted spoon into the ice water. Let sit for a few minutes until cool. Remove to a separate bowl. Slip the white skins off the fava beans and discard; reserve the tender green fava beans in a bowl.
Add some more ice to the water bath. Place the peas in the boiling water and cook for 3 minutes or until bright green; remove to the ice water with a slotted spoon. Let cool then add to the bowl of fava beans.
Toss the favas and the peas with the lemon zest and mint and season with salt and pepper. In a large bowl, combine the fava-pea combo with the arugula, radishes, lemon juice, olive oil, and Pecorino. Toss the mixture a few times and taste–feel free to adjust the seasoning as needed (more Pecorino, more lemon, more salt or pepper, etc.) Serve immediately.
*Eliminate the Pecorino if you’d like to make this a vegan salad.
MAKE AHEAD: Prep the fava beans and peas a day ahead and store in the refrigerator. Proceed with the remaining steps just before serving.